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汉英语言对比comparativestudies

发布时间:2014-10-15 08:31:55  
Comparison between English & Chinese

Sep. 23, 2014

Comparison...
1 2 3 4 5

Contents
from a Macroscopic Viewpoint between Cultures

at Word Level at Sentence Level
at Text Level

1.Comparison from a Macroscopic Viewpoint
1.1 Synthetic vs. Analytic 1.2 Compact vs. Diffusive 1.3 Hypotactic vs. Paratactic

1.4 Complex vs. Simple

1.5 Impersonal vs. Personal 1.6 Static vs. Dynamic 1.7 Passive vs. Active 1.8 Abstract vs. Concrete

1.1

Synthetic vs. Analytic

综合与分析
Chinese: analytic language(isolating language),不用曲折变化, 而用语法词(grammatical words)或者小品词(particles)来表示 内部句法关系。 "了、已经、正、将" English : synthetic→analytic , 用曲折 (inflection) 或粘着 (agglutination)表示内部句法关系。tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case

●干这种事的不是他还有谁?Who else did it if it was not him? ●然而悲惨的皱纹,却再也从他的眉头和嘴角出现了。 Miserable wrinkles began to appear between his eyebrows and round his mouth.

1.2

Compact vs. Diffusive

聚集与流散
Chinese: diffusive, spread out, not concentrated English: compact, subject+predicate+(object)... ●因此步步小心,时时在意,不肯轻易多说一句话,多 行一步路,唯恐被人耻笑了他去。 She must watch her step in her new home, she decided, be on guard every moment and weigh every words, so as not to be laughed at for any foolish blunder. —《林黛玉进贾府》

1.3

Hypotactic vs. Paratactic

形合与意合
Chinese: diffusive, covert(hidden),通过字词的意义连结 English: compact, overt(open,obvious),语言符号之间有较强 的逻辑关系 ●香港回归 the return of HK to the motherland ●a guide to a museum 博物馆参观指南

●虚心使人进去,骄傲使人落后。 Modesty helps a person to make progress whereas conceit makes a person lag behind. ●If winter comes,can spring be far behind? 冬天来了,春天还会远吗?

1.4

Complex vs. Simple
复杂与简短
Sub.+pre. subordination

English: complex, conj. Chinese: simple

●There are many wonderful stories to tell about the places I visited and the people I met. 我访问了一些地方,遇到了不少人。要谈起来,奇妙的 事儿可多着哩。 比较:关于我所访问的一些地方和遇见的不少人有许多 奇妙的故事可以讲。

1.5

Impersonal vs. Personal

物称与人称
English: impersonal, passive voice+active voice Chinese: personal, active voice

●Protocol irked me. 我讨厌繁文缛节。 ●My conscience told me that I deserved no extraordinary politeness. 凭良心讲,你带我礼貌有加,我却受之有愧。

1.6

Static vs. Dynamic

静态与动态
Chinese: dynamic, more predicates English: static, sub+pre, inflectional forms of verbs, adj. & adv. ●游客止步 No visitors. ●I came by train. 我坐火车来。 ●All employees must have a complete understanding of and dedication to the aims of the company. 凡本公司之雇员均需彻底理解公司之宗旨并为之献身。

1.7

Passive vs. Active

被动和主动
English: passive, inanimate words as subjects Chinese: active, people or animate things as subjects

●The crops were washed away by the flood. 庄稼让洪水冲跑了。 ●He was hard hit by the flu. 他得了重感冒。

1.8

Abstract vs. Concrete

抽象与具体
English: abstract, general, formal Chinese: concrete

●Have you read some humor recently? 近来你读了什么幽默作品? ●Is Jane a possibility as a wife for Richard? 简是做理查德妻子的合适人选吗?

2.Comparison between Cultures
2.1 Different backgrounds 2.2 Different Customs 2.3 Different Associations
2.4 Different Systems, Beliefs and World Views

2.5 Different Social Etiquettes 2.6 Cultural Gaps, Meaning Conflicts

2.1 Different Origins(背景)
Chinese: China used to be an agricultural country, concerning farming. 骨瘦如柴 be lean as a rake(靶子) 众人拾柴火焰高 Many hands make light work. English: the British love sailing Hoist your sail when the wind is fair. 好风快扬帆 Still waters run deep. 静水流深

2.2

Different Customs
Chinese English
mistress

lover

wife

owl
dragon

ominous
auspicious,sacred creature

wisdom
an animal like a big lizard. It has wings and claws, and breathes out fire

2.3

Different Associations

●cultural overlaps ●胆小如鼠 as timid as a rabbit 水中捞月 to fish in the air 半瓶子醋 half-baked 害群之马 black sheep 挥金如土 to spend money like water

2.4 Different Systems, Beliefs and World Views

color:

white funeral vs. wedding yellow imperial vs. timid numbers: 8, 13

2.5

Different Social Etiquettes

hello, hi vs. 你吃了吗? goodbye vs. 慢走,留步 How is your trip? vs. 路上辛苦了。 chopsticks vs. knife and fork

2.6

Cultural Gaps, Meaning Conflicts
Cultural Gaps: 老油条、炒冷饭、吃大锅饭、孔夫子搬家 a skeleton in the cupboard, a green eye, take French leave Meaning Conflicts: 花(woman, prostitute) “中国是块肥肉,谁都想吃” 见面说:“你胖了!”

3.Comparison at Word Level
3.1 Word Formation
3.2 Word Class 3.3 Word Meaning

3.1

Comparison of Word Formation
Chinese
compounding derivation abbreviation loan words other methods
心跳、发明 是非、超短裙 地铁,科研 扑克、马拉松 眼巴巴、糊里糊涂 (reduplication)

English
sunshine, overnight

kindness, windy Dec., VOA litchi, kowtow edit(back formation), exam(clipping)

3.2

Comparison of Word Class

English: n. pron. v. adj. adv. prep.conj. interj. num. art. Chinese: n. pron. v. adj. adv. prep.conj. interj. num. quart.

沿着荷塘,是一条曲折的小煤屑路。 Alongside of the Lotus Pond runs a small cinder footpath.

3.3 Comparison

of Word Meaning

●agreement (proper nouns, terms and common nouns) CIA(美国)中央情报局 smog 烟雾 zoology 动物学 ●partial agreement uncle(广义)—叔父,伯父,姑父,姨父,舅父(狭义) milk(抽象)—人奶,牛奶,羊奶(具体) ●disagreement。 hippie 嬉皮士 breaker跳霹雳舞者 congressperson 美国国会(尤其是众议院)议员(男议员或女 议员) ●overlapping light music 轻音乐(light=intended chiefly to entertain) light step 轻快的步伐(light=gentle) light voice 轻柔的声音(light= soft)

参考书: 《英汉互译教程》 周玉忠等

Thank you~~~

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